Today is Clean Monday, the day on which we begin the Lenten Fast. (In the Eastern Church, unlike in the Western, Sundays are included in the count of the 40 days, which therefore end on the Friday before Palm Sunday; at that point, we enter Passion Week, which in turn leads us to the radiant feast of the Resurrection of Christ.) Great Lent is officially inaugurated with the celebration of Forgiveness Vespers on the evening of Sunday, at the end of which all present ask forgiveness from one another as Paschal hymns are sung. The day that follows, and by extension the entire Fast, is “clean” not only because we have rid our homes of meat and other animal products that are not eaten during the Fast, but also (and indeed chiefly) because we have set out on the journey to Lord’s Pascha having sought forgiveness of those closest to us, who are therefore also those we offend the most (and with the least remorse!). Since I interact with some of you nearly as much as I interact with those physically closest to me, I would like to take this chance at the beginning of the Fast to say to each and all:
Forgive me for all the ways in which
I have undoubtedly grieved and offended you.
- The True Nature of Fasting, by Metropolitan Kallistos of Diokleia (from his introduction to the Lenten Triodion, pages 13-28).
- On Keeping a True Fast, a homily by the ever-memorable Archbishop Averky of Syracuse and Holy Trinity.
- The Madness of the Stomach (selections from the works of St Dorotheos of Gaza), from Ora et Labora.
- On the Observance of Lent (a letter attributed to St Scholastica), from Logismoi.
- Of Why Fasting Is Good (a selection from the works of St John Cassian), from Logismoi.
II. Biblical lessons and other spiritual reading:
- The Lenten Prophetologion, a wonderful resource that features the full text of the three daily Old Testament lessons (comprising almost the entirety of Genesis, Isaiah and Proverbs) which are appointed to be read at weekday Lenten services. It should be noted that this is a translation of the Church’s text of these biblical books, which sets it apart from any other English text currently available. The translation is by Archimandrite Ephrem (Lash), who also has these readings available in HTML format on his website.
- The Great Canon of St Andrew of Crete, the Scripturally rich centerpiece of the Services during the First Week of Great Lent, and an unsurpassed example of how the Church reads the Bible.
- The Lenten Triodion, the book that contains the liturgical texts for the entire Lenten Season (up to an including Holy Week), in a partial translation by the Holy Myrrbearers Monastery (Otego, NY).
- Commentaries on the Gospel Lectionary for every Sunday of Great Lent, taken from the Explanation of New Testament by St Theophylact of Ohrid.
- A Lectionary for Reading St John Climacus’ The Ladder of Divine Ascent during Lent, prepared by Fr James Baglien with the assistance of Fr David Straut. The Ladder is appointed to be read at the Hours every weekday during Lent, and this eminently useful Lectionary is arranged accordingly. (Many thanks to Fr James for his kind permission to distribute this document, and for providing a PDF file of it.)
- Saint Ephrem the Syrian’s Homilies on Fasting (partial translation), and some Ascetical and Other Writings Extant only in Greek. As Father Ephrem Lash reminds us in his introduction to the latter collection, the writings of St Ephrem are appointed to be read at Matins every weekday during Lent, and as such, “they should form [part of] the regular diet of non-biblical spiritual reading for Orthodox Christians.”
“Let us joyfully begin the season of the Fast, preparing ourselves for spiritual combats; let us purify our souls and cleanse our flesh. Let us fast from every passion as we fast from foods, delighting in the virtues of the Spirit and persevering with love; that, rejoicing in spirit, we all may be counted worthy to see the most sacred Passion of Christ God and His holy Pascha.” (Third sticheron from the Tridion at Forgiveness Vespers)
“Let us joyfully begin the most sacred abstinence, shining with the bright radiance of the holy commandments of Christ our God, with the brightness of love and the splendor of prayer, with the purity of holiness and the strength of good courage. And so, clothed in light, let us hasten to the holy Resurrection on the third day, which irradiates immortality upon the world.” (Third sessional hymn at Matins, Clean Monday)
1A mosaic from the Church of the Savior in Chora (now a museum), in the western district of Constantinople. The inscription reads, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, ἡ χώρα τῶν ζώντων (cf. Psalm 114:9, LXX).